This study characterizes the spatial organization of excitation and inhibition that influences the visual responses of neurons in macaque monkey's primary visual cortex (V1). To understand the spatial extent of excitatory and inhibitory influences on V1 neurons, we performed area-summation experiments with suprathreshold contrast stimulation. The extent of spatial summation and the magnitude of surround suppression were estimated quantitatively by analyzing the spatial summation experiments with a difference of Gaussians (DOG) model. The average extent of spatial summation is approximately the same across layers except for layer 6 cells, which tend to sum more extensively than cells in the other layers. On average, the extent of length and width summation is approximately equal. Across the population, surround suppression is greatest in layer 4B and weakest in layer 6. Estimates of summation and suppression are compared for the DOG (subtractive) model and a normalization (divisive) model. The two models yield quantitatively similar estimates of the extent of excitation and inhibition. However, the normalization (divisive) model predicts weaker surround strength than the DOG model.