The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, indomethacin and eicosa-5,8,11, 14-tetraynoic acid (ETA), have been tested on the isolated lamb ductus arteriosus at low and high PO2 levels. Both compounds produced a gradual contraction of the hypoxic vessel, and at equal doses the effect of indomethacin was stronger. The maximal tension output of the hypoxic tissue under indomethacin was equal to that of the oxygen-contracted control. ETA- and indomethacin-treated preparations contracted further upon transfer from a low to a high oxygen environment, and the response under indomethacin exceeded a significantly control values. Control preparations were relaxed markedly by PGE2 in low oxygen but showed little or no response in high oxygen. In contrast, preparations pretreated with the inhibitors retained their sensitivity to PGE2 during exposure to high oxygen. The data are consistent with the idea that E-type prostaglandins play a role in the regulation of the intrinsic tone of the ductus arteriosus during foetal life. It is also suggested that the sensitivity of ductal muscle to E-type prostaglandins is controlled by the rate of endogenous prostaglandin formation.