Carbohydrate beverage ingestion and neutrophil degranulation responses following cycling to fatigue at 75% VO2 max

Int J Sports Med. 2001 Apr;22(3):226-31. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-16386.


Carbohydrate (CHO) beverage ingestion appears to influence neutrophil functional responses to prolonged exercise of a fixed duration. The aim of this randomised study was to examine the effect of CHO (5% w/v) beverage ingestion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophil degranulation responses in nine recreationally active males who cycled at 75% VO2 max until fatigue. On two separate occasions, subjects ingested either placebo (PLA) or CHO beverages before and at 15 min intervals during the exercise. Subjects exercised for 31% longer on the CHO trial compared with the PLA trial (P < 0.05). At fatigue plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower on the PLA trial compared with the CHO trial (P < 0.05). Plasma cortisol concentrations had increased similarly on both trials at this time. A marked neutrophilia was evident at fatigue and throughout the 4 h recovery period, the magnitude of which was similar on both trials. At fatigue LPS-stimulated elastase release per neutrophil had fallen similarly on both trials compared with pre-exercise values (47% and 50% on the PLA and CHO trials, respectively). In conclusion, our results suggest that CHO beverage ingestion has negligible influence on the hormonal, circulating neutrophil and LPS-stimulated neutrophil degranulation responses when exercise is performed to fatigue.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beverages*
  • Bicycling / physiology
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / immunology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cell Degranulation / immunology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / immunology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Fatigue / immunology*
  • Heart Rate / immunology
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Hydrocortisone / immunology
  • Insulin / blood
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Male
  • Neutrophils / immunology*
  • Pancreatic Elastase / blood
  • Pancreatic Elastase / immunology
  • Physical Exertion / physiology
  • Plasma Volume / immunology


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Insulin
  • Lactic Acid
  • Pancreatic Elastase
  • Hydrocortisone