Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with focal nodular hyperplasia. Report of a case with clonal analysis

Virchows Arch. 2001 Apr;438(4):408-11. doi: 10.1007/s004280000348.


We describe a hepatocellular carcinoma partially surrounded by focal nodular hyperplasia in a 65-year-old female patient. In order to clarify the relationship of the hepatocellular carcinoma and the adjacent focal nodular hyperplasia, clonal analysis was conducted. The clonal analysis was based on the methylation pattern of the polymorphic X-chromosome-linked androgen receptor gene (HUMARA). The allelic bands from the amplification of the focal nodular hyperplasia and of the hepatocellular carcinoma showed a significant reduction in the intensity of one of the two alleles as compared with two alleles of equal intensity in the buff coat after HhaI digestion, which indicated that these two parts were monoclonal. However, the inactivated allele in the focal nodular hyperplasia and that in the hepatocellular carcinoma were not identical. Therefore, the focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma probably derived from the clonal expansion of two different clones.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology*
  • Clone Cells / metabolism
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • Female
  • Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications
  • Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / genetics
  • Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / metabolism
  • Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • Liver Neoplasms / genetics
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism


  • AR protein, human
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Receptors, Androgen