Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on frequency of oral warts

Lancet. 2001 May 5;357(9266):1411-2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04578-5.


To investigate changes in the pattern of oral disease associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we assessed the frequency of these lesions in our clinic over 9 years. We retrospectively studied 1280 patients seen between July, 1990, and June, 1999, and related oral findings to medication use, immune function, and viral load. We found significant decreases in oral candidosis, hairy leucoplakia, and Kaposi's sarcoma over time, but no change in the occurrence of aphthous ulcers. There was an increase in salivary-gland disease and a striking increase in warts: three-fold for patients on antiretroviral therapy and six-fold for those on HAART (p=0.01). This pattern of oral disease in a referral clinic suggests that an increase in oral warts could be occurring as a complication of HAART.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Candidiasis, Oral / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Leukoplakia, Hairy / drug therapy
  • Mouth Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Prevalence
  • Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Viral Load
  • Warts / chemically induced*


  • Protease Inhibitors