Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm

J Neurol. 2001 Apr;248 Suppl 1:21-4. doi: 10.1007/pl00007813.


Botulinum A toxin is recognized and approved for symptomatic treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm. The state of trials is good, although double-blind placebo-controlled studies have been carried out involving only a small number of cases. Open case control studies have been done with large patient collectives. In both indications, treatment with botulinum toxin reaches the highest EBM degree in a critical evaluation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blepharospasm / drug therapy*
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / methods
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / statistics & numerical data*
  • Hemifacial Spasm / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use*


  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A