A postal survey of the use of cuffed or uncuffed tracheal tubes for tracheal intubation in children and infants was performed to investigate the criteria used for deciding the choice of tube and the manner of inflating the cuff in the case of use of a cuffed tracheal tube (CTT). From 200 questionnaires despatched, replies were received from 130 paediatric anaesthesiologists (response rate 65%). In paediatric practice, the CTT was routinely used by 25% of respondents for more than 80% of their patients, while more than 37% of respondents use them in less than 20% of the cases. The three main criteria used for inflating a cuff were: (i) the presence of a leak, (ii) the type of surgery associated with the presence of a leak and (iii) the patient's age associated with the type of surgery and the presence of a leak. These criteria were specified, respectively, by 32%, 24% and 18% of the respondents. The cuff was inflated in response to a leak in 18% of the cases and as a response to a pressure manometer in 15% of the cases. Few paediatric anaesthesiologists use a cuffed tracheal tube routinely for tracheal intubation in children, and fewer actually use a pressure monitoring device, while it is suggested that the cuff pressure should be monitored in case of CTT.