Metabolism of equilenin in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 May;14(5):572-81. doi: 10.1021/tx000219r.


Sulfate conjugates of the B-ring unsaturated estrogens, equilin, equilenin, and 8-dehydroestrone, and their 17alpha- and 17beta-dihydro analogues, constitute about 54% of Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst), the most commonly prescribed estrogen formulation in estrogen replacement therapy. Despite the wide clinical use of Premarin, there have been very few studies on the metabolism of the B-ring unsaturated estrogens in humans and there is no information regarding the fate of these compounds in breast tissue or tumors. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of equilenin in two lines of human breast-cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 cells respond to treatment with Ah-receptor agonists with induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1, whereas in MDA-MB-231 cells P450 1B1 is predominantly induced. Metabolites of equilenin were identified and quantified by GC/MS utilizing a series of synthetic metabolite standards and deuterium-labeled analogues as internal standards. In the two cell lines, the same pathways of equilenin metabolism were observed. Equilenin was reduced at C-17 to the 17beta-dihydro form, with minimal production of the 17alpha-dihydro isomer. Both equilenin and 17beta-dihydroequilenin were hydroxylated at the C-4 position, and the resultant catechol metabolites were methylated to form 4-methoxyequilenin and 4-methoxy-17beta-dihydroequilenin. Rates of equilenin metabolism were markedly elevated in cultures exposed to the Ah-receptor agonists, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, implicating the activities of P450s 1A1 and 1B1 in the metabolism. The 2-hydroxylation pathways of equilenin and 17beta-dihydroequilenin metabolism were not observed. In microsomal reactions with cDNA-expressed human enzymes, both P450s 1A1 and 1B1 catalyzed the 4-hydroxylation of 17beta-dihydroequilenin, whereas with 17beta-estradiol as substrate P450 1A1 catalyzes predominantly 2-hydroxylation and P450 1B1 predominantly 4-hydroxylation. Since P450 1B1 is constitutively expressed and both P450s 1A1 and 1B1 are inducible in many extrahepatic tissues including the mammary epithelium, these results indicate the potential for 4-hydroxylation of equilenin and 17beta-dihydroequilenin in extrahepatic, estrogen-responsive tissues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / drug effects
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / drug effects
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Equilenin / analogs & derivatives
  • Equilenin / analysis
  • Equilenin / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxylation
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls / pharmacology
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / pharmacology
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / agonists
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
  • 17-dihydroequilenin
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • CYP1B1 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
  • Equilenin
  • 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl