Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS), especially those located in the retroperitoneum, may occasionally undergo dedifferentiation. Although this process is associated with a more aggressive clinical course, dedifferentiated liposarcomas rarely produces metastases. The case reported here is rather uncommon: A retroperitoneal WDLPS gave lung metastases that were diagnosed as highly malignant osteosarcomas. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and Southern blot analyses to characterize the copy number changes and genetic aberrations occurring at different stages of the disease. In the primary tumor, the only detectable aberration was amplification of 12q13-q14, which was present only in a fraction of the cells and revealed by FISH analysis. High-level amplification of 12q13-q14, involving CDK4, MDM2, and HMGIC, was seen both in the relapse and the metastases. The second most common change, gain or high-level amplification of 1q22-q24, was detectable by CGH only in the osteogenic metastases, as was loss of the distal 2q. FISH analyses revealed considerable heterogeneity in the samples, and the percentage of cells showing aberrations was significantly higher in the metastatic samples. In particular, increased copy numbers of 789f2, a marker for 1q21 amplification in sarcomas, was observed in more than 65% of the cells in the metastatic samples, but in less than 10% of the cells from the recurrent samples. These observations could indicate that 1q amplification, in particular, may be indicative of a more malignant phenotype and ability of metastasis in WDLPS, as has also been suggested by others.