Are coffee and tea consumption associated with urinary tract cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Apr;30(2):353-62. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.2.353.


Background: Narrative reviews have concluded that there is a small association between coffee consumption and an increased risk of urinary tract cancer, possibly due to confounding by smoking. No association for tea consumption has been indicated. This systematic review attempts to summarize and quantify these associations both unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking and sex.

Method: Thirty-four case-control and three follow-up studies were included in this systematic review. Summary odds ratios (OR) were calculated by meta-regression analyses.

Results: The unadjusted summary OR indicated a small increased risk of urinary tract cancer for current coffee consumers versus non-drinkers. The adjusted summary OR were: 1.26 (95% CI : 1.09-1.46) for studies with only men, 1.08 (95% CI : 0.79-1.46) for studies with only women and 1.18 (95% CI : 1.01-1.38) for studies with men and women combined. Neither unadjusted nor adjusted summary OR provided evidence for a positive association between tea consumption and urinary tract cancer. Even though studies differed in methodology, the results were rather consistent. We did not perform dose-response analyses for coffee and tea consumption due to sparse data.

Conclusions: In accordance with earlier reviews, we found that coffee consumption increases the risk of urinary tract cancer by approximately 20%. The consumption of tea seems not to be related to an increased risk of urinary tract cancer.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coffee / adverse effects*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Tea / adverse effects*
  • Urologic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Urologic Neoplasms / etiology*


  • Coffee
  • Tea