The response regulator ARR2: a pollen-specific transcription factor involved in the expression of nuclear genes for components of mitochondrial complex I in Arabidopsis

Mol Genet Genomics. 2001 Mar;265(1):2-13. doi: 10.1007/s004380000400.


Two-component signal systems regulate a variety of cellular activities. They involve at least two common signalling molecules: a signal-sensing kinase and a response regulator that mediates the output response. Multistep systems also require proteins containing phosphotransfer domains. Here we report that the response regulator ARR2 from Arabidopsis is predominantly expressed in pollen and is localized in the nuclear compartment of the plant cell. Furthermore, ARR2 is transcriptionally active in yeast and binds to the promoters of nuclear genes for several components of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (nCI) from Arabidopsis. The nuclear nCI genes are up-regulated in pollen during spermatogenesis. The transcription factor functions of ARR2 are mediated by its C-terminal output domain. Our data identify ARR2 as the first eukaryotic response regulator which functions as a transcription factor at a known promoter sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and in vitro interaction studies suggest that ARR2 very probably forms part of a multistep two-component signalling mechanism that includes HPt proteins like AHP1 or AHP2. These findings point to an as yet unidentified signal transduction system that may regulate aspects of floral and mitochondrial gene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis / ultrastructure
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Electron Transport Complex I
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Mitochondria / genetics*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / genetics
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / metabolism
  • Phosphotransferases*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Pollen / genetics
  • Pollen / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques


  • AHP1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • AHP2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • ARR2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases
  • Phosphotransferases
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • hygromycin-B kinase
  • Electron Transport Complex I

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ005196