Gender inequalities in tuberculosis: aspects of infection, notification rates, and compliance

Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2001 May;7(3):165-9. doi: 10.1097/00063198-200105000-00009.


Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately 1 million women per year and it is estimated that almost 1 billion women and girls are infected with TB worldwide. Gender aspects of TB have been neglected in the research, and little attention is given to gender in TB-control programs. This review brings together the most important publications on gender and TB during 1999 and 2000 and illuminates areas where gender has an impact on the disease and its control. Even though only a limited number of publications on gender aspects of TB are available, some interesting findings were presented during the past year. Studies from Vietnam have shown that women with pulmonary TB are diagnosed on average 2 weeks later than men because of delays from the health care provider. In a study of persons with cough it was found that men were given sputum examinations more often than women. These and other findings are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that women with TB are under-notified.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Notification / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infections / epidemiology
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*
  • Women's Health