End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit: attitudes and practices of pediatric critical care physicians and nurses

Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar;29(3):658-64. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200103000-00036.


Objective: To determine the attitudes and practices of pediatric critical care attending physicians and pediatric critical care nurses on end-of-life care.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Setting: A random sample of clinicians at 31 pediatric hospitals in the United States.

Measurements and main results: The survey was completed by 110/130 (85%) physicians and 92/130 (71%) nurses. The statement that withholding and withdrawing life support is unethical was not endorsed by any of the physicians or nurses. More physicians (78%) than nurses (57%) agreed or strongly agreed that withholding and withdrawing are ethically the same (p < .001). Physicians were more likely than nurses to report that families are well informed about the advantages and limitations of further therapy (99% vs. 89%; p < .003); that ethical issues are discussed well within the team (92% vs. 59%; p < .0003), and that ethical issues are discussed well with the family (91% vs. 79%; p < .0002). On multivariable analyses, fewer years of practice in pediatric critical care was the only clinician characteristic associated with attitudes on end-of-life care dissimilar to the consensus positions reached by national medical and nursing organizations on these issues. There was no association between clinician characteristics such as their political or religious affiliation, practice-related variables such as the size of their intensive care unit or the presence of residents and fellows, and particular attitudes about end-of-life care.

Conclusions: Nearly two-thirds of pediatric critical care physicians and nurses express views on end-of-life care in strong agreement with consensus positions on these issues adopted by national professional organizations. Clinicians with fewer years of pediatric critical care practice are less likely to agree with this consensus. Compared with physicians, nurses are significantly less likely to agree that families are well informed and ethical issues are well discussed when assessing actual practice in their intensive care unit. More collaborative education and regular case review on bioethical issues are needed as part of standard practice in the intensive care unit.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Attitude to Death
  • Child
  • Child Advocacy
  • Critical Care / organization & administration*
  • Critical Care / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Decision Making
  • Ethics, Medical
  • Ethics, Nursing
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Hospitals, Pediatric
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units, Pediatric*
  • Medical Staff, Hospital / education
  • Medical Staff, Hospital / psychology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / education
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / psychology*
  • Pediatrics / methods*
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / organization & administration*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Terminal Care / organization & administration*
  • Terminal Care / psychology*
  • United States