Three major interconnected pathways are involved in lipoprotein metabolism: (1) the transport of dietary or exogenous fat; (2) the transport of hepatic or endogenous fat; and (3) reverse cholesterol transport. These pathways are interdependent and disruptions in one will affect the function and products of the others. For example, a mutation such as one in the ABC1 protein can disrupt normal transport and processing of cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) appears to have cardioprotective properties because of its involvement in certain processes such as reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation. Certain agents, such as niacin, which increases HDL-C, lowers lipoprotein (a), and targets specific enzymes or receptors, may be highly beneficial for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.