Disrupted amino- and carboxyl-terminal interactions of the androgen receptor are linked to androgen insensitivity

Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Jun;15(6):923-35. doi: 10.1210/mend.15.6.0647.


We have compared the functional consequences of seven single-point mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the androgen receptor (AR). The mutations span helices 3 to 11 and are present in patients suffering from androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) and other male-specific disorders. The mutants, except M742V, bound to androgen response elements in vivo and in vitro and showed a testosterone-dependent conformational change. With regard to functional activity, the mutant M742V had severely blunted ability to transactivate or exhibit the androgen-dependent amino/carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction; mutants F725L, G743V, and F754L showed reduced transactivation potential and attenuated N/C interaction; and mutants V715M, R726L, and M886V had minor functional impairments. The mutants belonging to the first two groups also displayed reduced response to coexpressed GRIP1. In addition, mutations of amino acids M894 and A896 in the putative core activation domain 2 (AF2) in helix 12 confirmed that this helix is important for N/C interactions. Thus, amino acids located between helices 3 and 4 (F725 and R726), in helix 5 (M742, G743, and F754), and in helix 12 (M894 and A896) play critical roles in mediating the N/C interaction of AR. The data also show that disrupted N/C interaction is a potential molecular abnormality in AIS cases in which LBD mutations have not resulted in markedly impaired ability to bind androgen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Androgens / metabolism
  • Androgens / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • COS Cells
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Humans
  • Immunoblotting
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
  • Point Mutation*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Receptors, Androgen / chemistry
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcriptional Activation*
  • Transfection


  • Androgens
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • NCOA2 protein, human
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA