Purpose: To evaluate the long-term clinical and hemodynamic effectiveness of aortic stent placement in cases of failure of intended infrarenal percutaneous transluminal aortic angioplasty (PTAA).
Materials and methods: Fifty-three patients who underwent technically successful PTAA were compared with 24 patients who underwent aortic stent placement because of PTAA failure (19 patients) or ulcerated lesions (five patients) that otherwise would have been treated surgically because of the embolization hazard associated with PTAA alone. Clinical patency was defined as the absence or improvement of symptoms after the intervention. Hemodynamic patency was defined as a normal Doppler waveform in the common femoral arteries, an ankle-brachial index greater than 0.95, or the absence of a thigh-brachial pressure gradient.
Results: Three-year clinical and hemodynamic patency rates, respectively, were 85% and 79% for PTAA and 69% and 43% for aortic stent placement. No morbidity was encountered. With use of the Cox proportional hazards model, two significant risk factors were retained for restenosis: unchanged smoking habit (P =.04) and small dilatation diameter (P =.001). Aortic stent placement, performed in patients with a smaller aortic diameter (10.3 vs. 12.7 mm for PTAA), appeared to be a predictive factor for restenosis by using univariate analysis. By using the Cox proportional hazards model, however, the restenosis rates after PTAA and aortic stent placement were not significantly different.
Conclusion: When aortic diameter is taken into consideration, there is no evidence that clinical outcome after secondary aortic stent placement would be poorer than technically successful PTAA.