Cryoablation, percutaneous alcohol injection, and radiofrequency ablation for treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

World J Surg. 2001 Jun;25(6):693-6. doi: 10.1007/s00268-001-0015-6.


Neuroendocrine liver metastases are associated with slow clinical progression, prolonged patient survival, and symptoms of hormone oversecretion. Although surgical resection is the gold standard of treatment, most of the patients are not candidates for resection, and the 5-year survival of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases is 11% to 40%. Cryotherapy, percutaneous alcohol injection, and radiofrequency thermal ablation are among the alternative regional treatment options available for these patients. The current role of these treatment options for neuroendocrine liver tumors are discussed in this review. Cryosurgery is the classic technique for local tumor destruction, mostly performed with open surgery. There has been limited experience with percutaneous alcohol injection for neuroendocrine liver metastasis. Radiofrequency thermal ablation is a relatively new modality that can be performed percutaneously or laparoscopically, and encouraging results have been obtained with it for treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases.

MeSH terms

  • Catheter Ablation*
  • Cryosurgery*
  • Ethanol / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Ethanol