During the last decade, the possible effects of xenobiotics on male reproductive health have resulted in great concern. More recently, evidence of antiandrogen effect in vivo by certain chemicals has been reported. The classical Hershberger in vivo assay determining organ weight changes can be improved by measuring hormone levels as well as determining changes in gene expression of androgen-responsive genes. A real-time RT-PCR method using LightCycler technology (Roche) suitable for quantitative determination of gene expression is described. The technique combines rapid thermocycling with online fluorescence detection of PCR product formation. In this study, investigation of expression of prostate specific binding protein polypeptide C3 (PBP C3) and testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) in the ventral prostate was performed in 60-days-old castrated Wistar rats treated daily with testosterone with or without addition of flutamide or vinclozolin for 7 days in total. We show that we can quantify the level of gene expression by use of LightCycler technology, supported by changes in reproductive organ weights as well as in hormone levels, and that analysis of gene expression levels is an even more sensitive endpoint.