To elucidate the expression and significance of cell cycle-associated proteins in chondrosarcoma of the jaws, Cyclin Dl, CDK4, p27, E2F-l and Ets-l expressions were examined in chondrosarcoma and osteochondroma of the jaws by immunohistochemical ABC method. The results demonstrated that Cyclin Dl, CDK4, p27, E2F-1 and Ets-1 were positive 75% (15 of 20), 60% (12 of 20), 25% (5 of 20), 65% (13 of 20) and 60% (12 of 20) in chondrosarcoma of the jaws, respectively. There was no remarkable difference in the expression of these proteins among histological grades of the chondrosarcoma (P>0.05). In osteochondroma of the jaws, CDK4 and E2F with an equal positivity of 12.5% (1 of 8), whereas p27 was positive 75% (6 of 8). None of the osteochondroma cases was immunohistochemically positive for Cycin Dl and Ets-1. In addition, the positive rate of Cyclin Dl, CDK4, E2F-l and Ets-1 proteins was significantly higher, whereas p27 was lower in chondrosarcoma than in osteochondroma of the jaws (P<0.05). These data show that the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins is altered in chondrosarcoma of the jaws: cyclin Dl, CDK4, E2F-1 and Ets-1 are over-expressed and p27 is low-expressed.