To compare the effect of a fixed dorzolamide-timolol combination with that of latanoprost on intraocular pressure (IOP) after small incision cataract surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. This prospective randomized study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients scheduled for small incision cataract surgery in both eyes. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 drop of a fixed dorzolamide-timolol combination or latanoprost immediately after cataract surgery in the first eye. The second eye received the other antiglaucomatous agent. Cataract surgery was performed under sodium hyaluronate 1% with a temporal 3.5 mm sutureless posterior limbal incision, phacoemulsification, and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens. The IOP was measured preoperatively as well as 6 and 20 to 24 hours and 1 week postoperatively. Six hours after surgery, the mean IOP decreased by -0.8 mm Hg +/- 3.2 (SD) (P =.184) in the dorzolamide-timolol group and increased by 3.6 mm Hg +/- 3.5 (P <.001) in the latanoprost group. Twenty to 24 hours after surgery, the mean IOP decreased by -2.8 +/- 2.4 mm Hg (P <.001) in the dorzolamide-timolol group and increased by 0.6 +/- 3.5 mm Hg (P =.353) in the latanoprost group. The differences between groups were significant at 6 hours (P <.001) and 20 to 24 hours (P <.001). The fixed dorzolamide-timolol combination was more effective than latanoprost in reducing IOP after small incision cataract surgery. Only the fixed dorzolamide-timolol combination prevented a postoperative IOP increase and occasional IOP spikes of 30 mm Hg or higher.