Fruit and vegetable intake and population glycosylated haemoglobin levels: the EPIC-Norfolk Study

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 May;55(5):342-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601162.


Objective: To investigate whether self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with HbA(1C) levels in individuals not known to have diabetes, and what dietary and lifestyle factors might explain this association.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: The EPIC-Norfolk Study, a population-based cohort study of diet and chronic disease.

Subjects and methods: A total of 2678 men and 3318 women (45-74 y) not known to have diabetes reported weekly consumption of fruit, green leafy vegetables and other vegetables.

Results: Among men, 274 (10.2%) reported seldom or never eating fruit and 127 (4.7%) seldom or never eating green leafy vegetables. Corresponding numbers in women were 157 (4.7%) and 92 (2.8%), respectively. Participants who reported never or seldom having both fruit and green leafy vegetables had higher mean (s.d.) HbA(1C) measurements (5.43% (0.71)) than those who reported more frequent consumption (5.34% (0.67); P=0.046). Differences by category of fruit or green leafy vegetable consumption were not substantially changed after adjustment for saturated fat, dietary fibre and plasma vitamin C.

Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that high intake of fruit and green leafy vegetables may influence glucose metabolism independent of dietary fibre or vitamin C alone and that increased consumption may contribute to the prevention of diabetes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ascorbic Acid / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Dietary Fiber / metabolism
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vegetables*


  • Dietary Fiber
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Glucose
  • Ascorbic Acid