Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is secondary to several insults whose purpose is to limit and reverse the injury. The outcome and intensity of the inflammatory response is determined by injury extension and balance between inflammatory and compensatory antiinflammatory responses. The interaction of the several soluble and cellular mediators of inflammatory and antiinflammatory responses determine the next evolutive phases: a) local inflammatory response; b) systemic inflammatory response; c) massive systemic inflammatory response; d) immunologic paralysis; and e) immune dissonance. If the last three phases do not control, cell damage can be amplified and thus perpetuating the infectious process and leading the patient to multiple organ dysfunction. Gamma interferon and steroids as modulators of the inflammatory response, in stages of paralysis and immune dissonance has been studied in clinical and experimental trials with promising results, but more studies to are needed validate their usefulness.