Background: This retrospective study compared clinical outcomes and resource utilization in patients having off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Angiographic patency was documented in the OPCAB group.
Methods: From April 1997 through November 1999, OPCAB was performed in 200 consecutive patients, and the results were compared with those in a contemporaneous matched control group of 1,000 patients undergoing CABG. Patients were matched according to age, sex, preexisting disease (renal failure, diabetes, pulmonary disease, stroke, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, previous myocardial infarction, and primary or redo status. Follow-up in the OPCAB patients was 93% and averaged 13.4 months.
Results: Hospital death (1.0%), postoperative stroke (1.5%), myocardial infarction (1.0%), and re-entry for bleeding (1.5%) occurred infrequently in the OPCAB group. There were reductions in the rates of transfusion (33.0% versus 70.0%; p < 0.001) and deep sternal wound infection (0% versus 2.2%; p = 0.067) in the OPCAB group compared with the CABG group. Angiographic assessment of 421 grafted arteries was performed in 167 OPCAB patients (83.5%) prior to hospital discharge. All but five were patent (98.8%) (93.3% FitzGibbon A, 5.5% FitzGibbon B, 1.2% FitzGibbon O). All 163 internal mammary artery grafts were patent. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting reduced postoperative hospital stay from 5.7 +/- 5.3 days in the CABG group to 3.9 +/- 2.6 days (p < 0.001), with a decrease in hospital cost of 15.0% (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting reduces hospital cost, postoperative length of stay, and morbidity compared with CABG on cardiopulmonary bypass. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting is safe, cost effective, and associated with excellent graft patency and clinical outcomes.