Biodistribution and dosimetry of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, a promising agent for the diagnosis of bacterial infection

Eur J Nucl Med. 2001 May;28(5):570-4. doi: 10.1007/s002590100488.


This study reports on the biodistribution and dosimetry of technetium-99m ciprofloxacin, a radio-ligand developed for the visualisation of bacterial infection. Whole body scans were performed up to 24 h after intravenous injection of 370 MBq 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in three male and three female volunteers. Blood samples were taken at various times up to 24 h after injection. Urine was also collected up to 24 h after injection, allowing calculation of renal clearance and interpretation of whole body clearance. Time-activity curves were generated for the thyroid, heart, liver and whole body by fitting the organ-specific geometric mean counts, obtained from regions of interest. The MIRD formulation was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation doses for various organs. The images showed rapid, predominantly urinary excretion of 99mTc ciprofloxacin, with low to absent brain, lung and bone marrow uptake and low liver uptake and excretion. Accordingly, imaging conditions are excellent for both the thoracic and the abdominal region, even at early time points (60 min) post injection. In none of the volunteers was the gallbladder visualised. Approximately 60% of the injected activity was recovered in urine by 24 h post injection. The highest absorbed doses were received by the urinary bladder wall, the thyroid, the upper large intestine, the lower large intestine and the uterus. The estimated mean effective dose for the adult subject, taking into account the weight factors of the ICRP60 publication, was 0.0083 mSv/MBq. The amount of 99mTc ciprofloxacin required for adequate planar and tomographic imaging results in an acceptable effective dose to the patient.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Infective Agents* / pharmacokinetics
  • Bacterial Infections / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ciprofloxacin / pharmacokinetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics*
  • Technetium / pharmacokinetics*
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Technetium