A complete functional renin-angiotensin system exists in human adipose tissue, but its regulation and the effects of angiotensin II on cells from this tissue are only beginning to be understood. In this study, we examined the effects of angiotensin II on changes in lipid accumulation, specific glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and the expression of five genes of the renin-angiotensin system during the adipose conversion of human primary cultured preadipocytes. Angiotensin II leads to a distinct reduction in insulin-induced differentiation, but only has a marginal effect on the adipose conversion of cells stimulated with insulin, cortisol, and isobutyl methyl xanthine. During differentiation, angiotensinogen mRNA levels rise, renin mRNA levels decline, whereas renin-binding protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels are unaffected. Angiotensin II downregulates angiotensinogen and renin gene expression, but it does not affect renin-binding protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. Angiotensin II thus prevents the development of adipocytes in contact with high insulin levels, while not inhibiting differentiation, which is further stimulated. Therefore, angiotensin II could be a protective factor against uncontrolled expansion of adipose tissue. Further studies are needed to find out whether the effects of angiotensin II on the renin-angiotensin system are direct feedback loops or secondary to changes in the differentiation program.