Identification of a putative binding site for [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)thymine (TSAO) derivatives at the p51-p66 interface of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

J Med Chem. 2001 Jun 7;44(12):1853-65. doi: 10.1021/jm001095i.


A binding site for TSAO-m(3)T at the interface between the p66 and p51 subunits of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and distinct from that of "classical" HIV-1 non-nucleoside inhibitors is proposed. The feasibility of the binding mode was assessed by carrying out nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations for the complexes of TSAO-m(3)T with reduced models of both the wild-type enzyme and a more sensitive R172A mutant. The molecular model is in agreement with a previous proposal, with known structure-activity and mutagenesis data for this unique class of inhibitors, and also with recent biochemical evidence indicating that TSAO analogues can affect enzyme dimerization. The relative importance of residues involved in dimer formation and TSAO-RT complex stabilization was assessed by a combination of surface area accessibility, molecular mechanics, and continuum electrostatics calculations. A structure-based modification introduced into the lead compound yielded a new derivative with improved antiviral activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Anti-HIV Agents / chemical synthesis
  • Anti-HIV Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Line
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / chemistry*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Molecular Structure
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protein Subunits
  • RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / chemistry
  • RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Spiro Compounds / chemical synthesis
  • Spiro Compounds / chemistry*
  • Spiro Compounds / pharmacology
  • Static Electricity
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thymidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Thymidine / chemical synthesis
  • Thymidine / chemistry*
  • Thymidine / pharmacology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Protein Subunits
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • Spiro Compounds
  • reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 2
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
  • Thymidine