This study was conducted to examine the effect of consumption of buckwheat protein product (BWP) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumor in rats. Male growing Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either casein or BWP (net protein level, 200 g/kg; n = 20/group) for 124 d. The rats were gavaged weekly with DMH (20 mg/kg body) for the first 8 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Dietary BWP caused a 47% reduction in the incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05), but did not affect the incidence of colonic adenomas. BWP intake tended to reduce the number of colon adenocarcinomas (P = 0.16). Consumption of BWP significantly reduced cell proliferation and expression of c-myc and c-fos proteins in colonic epithelium. The results suggest that dietary BWP has a protective effect against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by reducing cell proliferation.