Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and other glomerular lesions (e.g., immunoglobulin A nephropathy and immune complex glomerulonephritis) are frequent complications of HIV infection. These renal diseases usually present as a nephrotic syndrome with progressive loss of renal function and an increased risk of mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of these renal lesions remain largely undefined; however, most studies agree that black race is a major risk factor for HIVAN. Observational studies have suggested that antiretroviral medications and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have beneficial effects on slowing the progression of renal disease among patients with HIVAN; however, little is known about the effect of these therapies on other renal lesions. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of the distribution and determinants of renal disease among HIV-infected patients as well as on performing controlled studies to test treatment strategies.