Renal diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: epidemiology, clinical course, and management

Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jul 1;33(1):115-9. doi: 10.1086/320893. Epub 2001 Jun 5.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and other glomerular lesions (e.g., immunoglobulin A nephropathy and immune complex glomerulonephritis) are frequent complications of HIV infection. These renal diseases usually present as a nephrotic syndrome with progressive loss of renal function and an increased risk of mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of these renal lesions remain largely undefined; however, most studies agree that black race is a major risk factor for HIVAN. Observational studies have suggested that antiretroviral medications and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have beneficial effects on slowing the progression of renal disease among patients with HIVAN; however, little is known about the effect of these therapies on other renal lesions. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of the distribution and determinants of renal disease among HIV-infected patients as well as on performing controlled studies to test treatment strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy* / drug therapy
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy* / epidemiology
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy* / physiopathology
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Prednisone / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Prednisone