In 1985, the International Study of Extracranial-to-Intracranial Arterial Anastomosis demonstrated no benefit from extracranial-to-intracranial arterial bypass operations in treatment of patients with extensive cerebrovascular disease including those with occlusions of the internal carotid artery. Interest in the potential use of extracranial-to-intracranial arterial bypass operations, however, has been rekindled by evidence that some patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery have a poor collateral circulation and a high risk for recurrent ischemic events. Other patients with adequate perfusion after occlusion have a low likelihood for recurrent stroke. Restricting surgical treatment to only those patients judged to have a high risk for recurrent stroke might improve the usefulness of the bypass operation. A new clinical trial is proposed, testing the potential usefulness of extracranial-to-intracranial arterial bypass operations for treatment of carefully selected patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Several issues that are being addressed in this new trial are described in this article.