A history of growth hormone injection devices

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 May;14(5):497-501. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2001.14.5.497.


In the early 1960s, growth hormone (GH) deficiency was treated by intramuscular injection of GH extracted from human pituitary glands. Since then, there have been many advances in treatment encompassing the route of administration, the injection product and the injection device. This review considers the advances in injection device that have already taken place and how they have benefited the patient, particularly in terms of reduced pain and improved convenience. In the future, needle-free injection techniques and depot formulations of GH are likely to offer alternatives to daily subcutaneous injections.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Forecasting
  • Growth Hormone / administration & dosage
  • Growth Hormone / history*
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Injections / history
  • Injections / instrumentation
  • Needles / history*
  • Syringes / history*


  • Growth Hormone