Helicobacter pylori is a gastroduodenal pathogen strongly associated with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulceration. It is thought that H. pylori infection might be one of the causes of growth retardation in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of H. pylori in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). H. pylori seropositivity was studied in 24 children with CDGP (22 M, 2 F) and 32 healthy age-matched children with normal pubertal development. Mean age of the children with CDGP was 14.53 +/- 1.12 yr and all of them had been diagnosed as CDGP after physical and laboratory assessment. H. pylori IgG positivity was detected in 16 of the 24 children with CDGP (66.6%) and 12 of 32 controls (37.5%) (p <0.05). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that H. pylori infection could be one of the environmental factors causing CDGP.