Smoking treatment for newly recovering drug and alcohol-dependent smokers in a residential rehabilitation program was examined. The randomly assigned conditions (n = 50 each) were multicomponent smoking treatment (MST), MST plus generalization training of smoking cessation to drug and alcohol cessation (MST+G), or usual care (UC). Fifty participants who declined smoking treatment (treatment refusers) also were studied. Both treatment conditions achieved continuous smoking abstinence rates (MST: 12%, MST+G: 10%, at 12-month follow-up) that were significantly higher than in the UC condition (0%). The MST condition had a continuous drug and alcohol abstinence rate that was significantly higher than that of the MST+G condition (40% vs. 20% at 12-month follow-up) although neither differed significantly from that of the UC condition (33%). These results support the feasibility of smoking treatment for this population and provide information regarding appropriate treatment components.