The brain of adult rats were analyzed for the presence of 35-SO4-containing glycolipids following intraventricular injection of Na2-35SO4. Radiochromatographic analyses revealed the presence of two minor 35-SO4-containing glycolipids, in addition to sulfogalactosylceramide. One of these two minor sulfolipids was isolated and tentatively identified as a 1-O--alkyl-2-0-acyl-3-(3'-sulfogalactosyl)-glycerol, a compound recently demonstrated to be the major glycolipid of mammalian testis. The alkyl and acyl compositions of the compound from rat brain are more heterogeneous than those from rat testis. The non-sulfated form of the galactoglycerolipid was also detected in rat brain. The amount of the sulfogalactoglycerolipid in rat brain is 0.19 mumol per gram wet weight, approximately one-third of the amount in rat testis (per gram wet weight), and is approximately one-fifteenth that of sulfogalactosylceramide in rat brain. The possible significance of the common occurrence in brain and testis of sulfated and non-sulfated galactolipids is discussed.