Leaves and floral organs are polarized along their adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral) axis. In Arabidopsis, this difference is particularly obvious in the first two rosette leaves, which possess trichomes (leaf hairs) on their adaxial surface but not their abaxial surface. Mutant alleles of KANADI (KAN) were identified in a screen for mutants that produce abaxial trichomes on these first two leaves. kan mutations were originally identified as enhancers of the mutant floral phenotype of crabs claw (crc), a gene that specifies abaxial identity in carpels. Here we show that KAN is required for abaxial identity in both leaves and carpels, and encodes a nuclear-localized protein in the GARP family of putative transcription factors. The expression pattern of KAN messenger RNA and the effect of ectopically expressing KAN under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CAMV) 35S promoter indicate that KAN may also specify peripheral identity in the developing embryo.