Lens-induced uveitis

Vet Ophthalmol. 2000;3(4):227-234. doi: 10.1046/j.1463-5224.2000.00107.x.

Abstract

has been described in humans and many animal species. Traumatic rupture of the lens capsule may result in vision-threatening intraocular inflammation that is poorly responsive to medical management. Phthisis bulbi, persistent uveitis or glaucoma often occurs in these eyes. Surgical removal of the lens material is generally indicated shortly after the injury in an effort to preserve vision. Leaking of lens proteins through an intact lens capsule may result in a lympho-plasmacytic anterior uveitis. This is most commonly associated with the presence of a hypermature cataract. The presence of lens-induced uveitis prior to cataract surgery significantly reduces the success rate of cataract surgery. Small amounts of circulating lens proteins maintain a normal T-cell tolerance for lens proteins. Lens-induced uveitis develops when a breakdown occurs of this normal T-cell tolerance. Immune complexes play an important role in the tissue damage associated with the ensuing inflammation. Other factors associated with the tissue damage include hydroxyl radicals, nitroxide radicals, and hydrogen peroxide and arachidonic acid metabolites. Treatment consists of topical and systemic anti-inflammatory medications, mydriatic agents, and glaucoma medications when indicated. Experimental pharmacological agents include dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors, interleukin-1 blockers, antioxidants and hydroxyl radical scavengers.