From a retrospective study in Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University in Bangkok (1983-1988), the estimated pediatric patients with clinically suspected IEM are approximately 2-4% of total annual pediatrics admission of 5,000 or more. This is, a low estimation since survey from all teaching hospitals in the country including the largest Children's Hospital in Bangkok indicated the presence of numerous IEM. However, most IEM were clinically diagnosed with limited laboratory facilities. We started a collaboration with Magee Womens Hospital of Pittsburgh and NeoGen Screening, USA; using tandem mass spectrometry to diagnose high risk infants and children for IEM from July 1993 to March 1998. Of total 146 samples sent, we detected numerous metabolic disorders (11.2%) eg phenylketonuria, organic acidemia, maple syrup urine disease, isovaleric acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, albinism, translocase/carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II, G6PD deficiency and lysinuric protein intolerance.