Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neuropsychological (NP) deficits. The extent to which such effects are attributable to unmeasured confounders or selection biases, or are manifest across a range of SDB is unclear. The relationship of SDB with a broad range of NP functions was examined in 100 volunteers with a spectrum of SDB and without underlying comorbidity. Factor analysis suggested that the NP tests could be summarized as four constructs: declarative memory, signal discrimination, working memory, and set shifting. These factors plus vigilance were dependent variables. Independent variables were age, the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), a sleepiness score, the arousal index, and sleep-associated hypoxemia. Factors "declarative memory" (measuring 25% of the common variance, alpha = 0.95), "signal discrimination" (10% variance, alpha = 0.70), and "working memory" (9% variance, alpha = 0.52) were each significantly, linearly predicted by hypoxemia and/or the RDI, with no evidence for significant threshold effects. SDB measures accounted for 4-6% of the variance in NP constructs. In contrast, sleepiness best predicted vigilance. Thus, adverse exposures (hypoxemia or RDI) during sleep may negatively influence NP functions in a dose-response relationship, and, other than vigilance, these effects may not be directly attributable to sleepiness.