In this study, we show that upon thrombopoietin (Tpo) stimulation the two adapter proteins Gab1 and Gab2 are strongly tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with Shc, SHP2, PI 3-kinase and Grb2 in mpl-expressing UT7 cells. Although Gab1 and Gab2 seem to mediate overlapping biological signals in many cells, only Gab1 is expressed and phosphorylated in response to Tpo in primary human megakaryocytic progenitors; furthermore, it associates with the same proteins. Although a low level of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-2 protein is also detected in PI 3-kinase immunoprecipitates, Gab proteins are the essential proteins associated with PI 3-kinase after Tpo stimulation. We demonstrate that, albeit no association is detected between the Tpo receptor mpl and Gab proteins, Y112 located in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of mpl is required for Gab1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Gab proteins are not tyrosine phosphorylated after Tpo stimulation of UT-7 and Ba/F3 cells expressing a mpl mutant lacking Y112. Moreover, no activation of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway is observed in cells expressing this mpl mutant. Finally, we show that this mutant does not allow cell proliferation, thereby confirming that PI 3-kinase activation is required for Tpo-induced cell proliferation.