Cellular Jun (c-Jun) and viral Jun (v-Jun) can induce oncogenic transformation. For this activity, c-Jun requires an upstream signal, delivered by the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). v-Jun does not interact with JNK; it is autonomous and constitutively active. v-Jun and c-Jun address overlapping but not identical sets of genes. Whether all genes essential for transformation reside within the overlap of the v-Jun and c-Jun target spectra remains to be determined. The search for transformation-relevant targets of Jun is moving into a new stage with the application of DNA microarrays technology. Genetic screens and functional tests remain a necessity for the identification of genes that control the oncogenic phenotype.