The AP-1 transcription factor is composed of a mixture of homo- and hetero-dimers formed between Jun and Fos proteins. The different Jun and Fos family members vary significantly in their relative abundance and their interactions with additional proteins generating a complex network of transcriptional regulators. Thus, the functional activity of AP-1 in any given cell depends on the relative amount of specific Jun/Fos proteins which are expressed, as well as other potential interacting proteins. This diversity of AP-1 components has complicated our understanding of AP-1 function and resulted in a paucity of information about the precise role of individual AP-1 members in distinct cellular processes. We shall discuss recent studies which suggest that different Jun and Fos family members may have both opposite and overlapping functions in cellular proliferation and cell fate.