An update on functional electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury

Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2000;14(4):251-63. doi: 10.1177/154596830001400402.


Recent advances in biomedical engineering as applied to neurologic rehabilitation have finally borne clinically relevant fruit. Nowhere is this more evident than in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES). This article highlights the remarkable clinical progress that has been made in the use of electrical stimulation for restoring movement and function in individuals with spinal cord injury. Specific attention is given to respiratory-assist devices, hand-grasp systems, standing and walking, and bladder control. This review article features discussion of eight devices that have gone through the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory approval process.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Contraindications
  • Ejaculation / physiology
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Paraplegia / rehabilitation
  • Quadriplegia / rehabilitation
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy*