Using the monitoring process model (MPM), the authors examined the immediate effects of coping style and test results on the psychological distress of women at increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancers. Cases selected for analysis were 107 probands and relatives of positive probands participating in genetic counseling and testing for heritable cancer risk. Specifically, the authors explored the relationships among coping style (high and low monitoring), test results (BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier and noncarrier status), and psychological distress (state anxiety). Consistent with the MPM, higher monitoring was associated with greater psychological distress while anticipating genetic test results. After test results were disclosed, greater distress was associated with testing positive for a mutation. The implications of the findings for breast and ovarian cancer patients are discussed.