Study objectives: to prospectively analyze changes in the prevalence of insomnia and the relationship between insomnia, aging, lifestyle, and medical disorders
Design: a longitudinal population survey.
Participants: a randomly selected population sample of 2,602 men (age 30-69 years) from Uppsala in Sweden.
Intervention: all participants answered a questionnaire on sleep disturbances, lifestyle factors, and medical disorders in 1984 and again in 1994.
Measurements and results: The prevalence of INSOMNIA was 10.3% in 1984 and 12.8% in 1994. No significant correlation was found between age and insomnia in any of the two time periods. Insomnia in 1994 was independently related to having insomnia in 1984 (OR=6.45), being over-weight (BMI> 27 kg/m2) (OR=1.35), physical inactivity (OR=1.42), alcohol dependence (OR=1.75), psychiatric disorders (OR=8.27) and joint/low back disorders (OR=2.95). The number of subject with reported insomnia in 1984 but not 1994 was 149. Subjects that quit smoking during the time period had an increased likeliness of remission (OR=2.70) while men who were overweight were less likely to remit (OR=0.43).
Conclusions: We conclude that in men insomnia is related to lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and alcohol dependency but not to aging. Medical disorders such as joint and low back disorders and psychiatric illnesses also increase the risk of reporting insomnia. This study demonstrates the close relationship between quality of sleep and overall health status.