Reference values of maximum isometric muscle force obtained in 270 children aged 4-16 years by hand-held dynamometry

Neuromuscul Disord. 2001 Jul;11(5):441-6. doi: 10.1016/s0960-8966(01)00193-6.


Since muscle force and functional ability are not related linearly; maximum force can be reduced while functional ability is still maintained. For diagnostic and therapeutic reasons loss of muscle force should be detected as early and accurately as possible. Because of growth factors, maximum muscle force in children varies with age, which makes detection of force loss difficult. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for muscle force in children aged 4-16 years, obtained by hand-held dynamometry in 11 muscle groups. In boys muscle force was predicted best by weight whereas in girls weight and age were best predictors. At age 14 boys become significantly stronger for nearly all tested muscle groups. These age-related reference values can be used to quantify muscle weakness in individual muscle groups in children aged 4-16 years and to evaluate the effects of therapy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomechanical Phenomena*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction*
  • Male
  • Muscle Development*
  • Muscle Weakness / diagnosis
  • Muscle, Skeletal / growth & development*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Reference Values