The purpose of this report is to review the available literature on the presentation, pathology, and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) neurocytomas. A case report of an extraventricular neurocytoma is presented along with a comprehensive literature search of patients with a diagnosis of CNS neurocytoma. CNS neurocytomas are rare neoplasms, with fewer than 240 cases reported in the literature. The majority of neurocytomas are found in the ventricular system of the brain. Immunohistochemistry is frequently used to help distinguish this tumor from other CNS neoplasms. MIB-1 proliferation index is commonly used in an attempt to predict biologic behavior. Little is known about the management of patients with this tumor, because most reports are from the pathologic literature and contain sparse information regarding clinical management. Neurocytomas are rare CNS tumors with varied biologic behavior. MIB-1 index may help direct adjuvant therapy. An excellent prognosis can be expected if a gross total resection is achieved. Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) may be considered after subtotal resection. Otherwise, RT is an option for medically inoperable or recurrent disease.