A well-trained subject, age 38, ran continously for periods ranging from 60 to 165 min on a motor-driven treadmill at 255.7 m/min while confronted with an airflow equivalent to running speed in cool, moderate, and hot environments. After a period of intensive heat acclimatization, treadmill runs were repeated in the moderate and hot conditions. Measurements were also obtained outdoors in a competitive marathon race. Sweat rate (SR) and mean skin temperature (Ts) were linearly related to Tdb. Acclimatization did not alter VO2max or metabolic rate during the treadmill runs, but heart rat (HR),rectal temperature (Tre), and Ts were lower, SR was higher, and maximal run duration longer in the hot environment, postacclimatization. Maximum runs in the hot environment were terminated by a spiralling increase in Tre to hyperthermic levels, due largely to a marked reduction in cutaneous blood flow, probably reflecting cardiovascular overload from the combined muscular and thermoregulatory blood flow demands, coupled with the effects of progressive dehydration. Utilizing partitional calorimetry and the subject's metabolic heat production, two examples of limiting environmental conditions for his marathon running speed were given.