Extract of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br leaves (GE) was orally administered once a day to rats fed a high fat diet or normal fat diet for 3 weeks to investigate its influence on lipid metabolism. As a result, GE did not influence body weight gain or feed intake in both diet groups during the experimental period. The apparent fat digestibility was significantly decreased by GE in both diet groups for the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, though not the apparent protein digestibility. In addition, the excretion of neutral sterols and acid steroids into feces was increased by GE in both diet groups. Furthermore, GE decreased the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. On the other hand, blood lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was increased by GE. Moreover, it was suggested that GE influenced cecal fermentation and that propionic acid and acetic acid contents in cecum were significantly increased by GE. Consequently, it was suggested that GE improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels through influence over a wide range of lipid metabolism in rats.