Background: Factors affecting outcome for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the female genital tract in patients treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols I-IV were evaluated to define optimal therapy.
Methods: Records of 151 patients with tumors of the female genital tract who were treated on IRSG protocols I-IV were reviewed for details regarding chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and outcome.
Results: The overall 5-year survival was 82%, (87% for patients with locoregional tumors). Chemotherapy was primarily vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) based. Local therapy was surgery alone in 42% of patients, surgery plus RT in 19% of patients, biopsy plus RT in 12% of patients, and biopsy without RT in 21% of patients. The rate of hysterectomy decreased from 48% in IRS-I/II to 22% in IRS-III/IV with an increase in the use of RT from 23% in IRS-II to 45% in IRS-IV and continued excellent survival. Many patients with vaginal primary tumors received delayed RT or had it omitted on later studies with excellent outcome. For patients with localized embryonal/botryoid tumors, there were no significant differences in 5-year survival among patients with tumors at different sites or among patients treated on IRS-I-IV. In patients with Group I-III tumors, 43% of deaths were from toxicity. Analysis of prognostic factors, with toxic deaths censored, revealed that an age of 1-9 years at the time of diagnosis, noninvasive tumors, and the use of IRS-II or IRS-IV treatments were associated significantly with better outcome. Patients ages 1-9 years fared best (5-year survival of 98%) and patients outside of this age range especially benefited from the intensified therapy used in IRS-III or IRS-IV (5-year survival of 67% on the IRS-I/II vs. 90% in IRS-III/IV).
Conclusions: Localized female genital RMS usually is curable with combination chemotherapy, a conservative surgical approach, and the use of RT for selected patients.
Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.