Haplotype analysis of the human alpha2-HS glycoprotein (fetuin) gene

Ann Hum Genet. 2001 Jan;65(Pt 1):27-34. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6510027.x.


Alpha2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG), which is equivalent to fetuin in other species, is a protein found in human plasma. AHSG is polymorphic with two common alleles and many variants. To examine the intragenic haplotypes and their diversity at this locus, a contiguous genomic DNA sequence (10.3 kb) was analyzed in 20 samples (40 chromosomes), and haplotypes were determined for 309 subjects. Judging from the aligned nucleotide sequences and the conserved amino acid residues comparing human and chimpanzee AHSG, it was concluded that the type 1 allele is probably older and has evolved into four major suballeles. The type 2 allele was generated from one branch of the type 1 allele. AHSG*3 and *5 variants were each found to have a single nucleotide change in exon 7, resulting in the change of an amino acid residue from Arg299 to Cys and from Asp258 to Asn, respectively. It was noted that the AHSG*3 mutation gives rise to an additional cysteine residue, which possibly affects the conformation of the protein. The AHSG gene was found to have a low mutation rate and no apparent recombination events. Furthermore, the detected substitutions were nonhomogeneously distributed at this locus. In particular, four nonsynonymous substitutions were concentrated in the carboxyl-terminal domain.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Blood Proteins / genetics*
  • Chromosomes / ultrastructure
  • Codon
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Haplotypes*
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic
  • Mutation
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Phenotype
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
  • alpha-Fetoproteins / genetics*


  • AHSG protein, human
  • Blood Proteins
  • Codon
  • alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
  • alpha-Fetoproteins