Cancer-seeking antibodies (Abs) carrying radionuclides can be powerful drugs for delivering radiotherapy to cancer. As with all radiotherapy, undesired radiation dose to critical organs is the limiting factor. It has been proposed that optimization of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), that is, maximization of therapeutic efficacy and minimization of normal tissue toxicity, depends on a foreknowledge of the radiation dose distributions to be expected. The necessary data can be acquired by established tracer techniques, in individual patients, using quantitative radionuclide imaging. Object-oriented software systems for estimating internal emitter radiation doses to the tissues of individual patients (patient-specific radiation dosimetry), using computer modules, are available for RIT, as well as for other radionuclide therapies. There is general agreement that radiation dosimetry (radiation absorbed dose distribution, cGy) should be utilized to establish the safety of RIT with a specific radiolabeled Ab in the early stages (i.e. phase I or II) of drug evaluation. However, it is less well established that radiation dose should be used to determine the radionuclide dose (amount of radioactivity, GBq) to be administered to a specific patient (i.e. radiation dose-based therapy). Although treatment planning for individual patients based upon tracer radiation dosimetry is an attractive concept and opportunity, particularly for multimodality RIT with intent to cure, practical considerations may dictate simpler solutions under some circumstances.